That was the choice. Independence Day is a public holiday in Cuba observed on 10th October. The reasons for the war that broke out in 1868 in Cuba were many and complex. On May 20, 1902, after a brief period of US occupation in accordance with the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898 between Spain and the US at the end of the Spanish-American War, Cuba officially received its independence. The first of the three wars was known as the “Guerra de Los Diez Anos” (The Ten Years’ War), named after its ten years between 1868 and 1878. Spanish-American War for Cuba's Independence. But these elections had more limitations, that included coercive measures and fraud to guarantee a majority of votes in favor of the candidates that represented the Yankees interests. However, the outcome was not what the imperial power expected. The Independence War began in February 24 of 1895, under the writer and philosopher's intellectual direction José Martí who is considered by all the Cubans as Father of the Homeland. After 30 long years of struggle; Independent Republic or Neo-Colony of the US? It set in motion a series of actions that swiftly brought the U.S. into conflict with the European colonial power. Independence Day is not a public holiday. Nonetheless, division among the Cuban insurgents saw them surrender and signed the Pact of Zanjon in 1878, ending the war. “Of course, Cuba was left with little or no independence with the Platt Amendment and what was left was the annexation (…) It is evident that the island is absolutely in our hands (…) With control, which without a doubt, would turn Cuba into a possession, in a short time we will practically control the sugar commerce in the world (…) The island will gradually be Americanized and in due time we will have one of the richest and desirable possessions in the world”. Cuba gained its independence from Spain on May 20, 1902. Spain responded to the Cuban insurgency by sending 100,000 soldiers to Cuba in 1895. Tomas Estrada Palma himself dissolved the Cuban Revolutionary Party founded by Jose Marti to carry out the Revolution and later lead the destiny of the Cuban nation. Spanish-American War for Cuba's Independence. 05.17.12 at 11:48 am. Asked by serpa. Cuba was a Spanish colony until Spain’s defeat in the Spanish-American War. January 28 – José Martí’s birthday. Maximo Gomez Baez, hero of Cuba’s independence war withdrew his candidacy after witnessing the abuses. But that was not enough for the interests of the United States in Cuba. Martí was not known as a soldier: in a military sense, Gómez and Maceo did much more for the cause of Cuban independence than Martí. Although Hearst's altruism may be questioned, he and other journalists did bring American attention to the sufferings of the Cuban people. How Does Cuba Celebrate Their Independence Day? By the end of the 1800s, Spain had lost all of its New World colonies except Cuba and Puerto Rico. The United States joins you in celebrating the anniversary of Cuba’s independence, 118 years ago today. 29 March Antonio Maceo returned from exile to Cuba to support the revolution. vote. José Martí was a Cuban poet and an intellectual during the late 19th century, and is considered the father of Cuban revolution. By the time of the American intervention in Cuba in April 1898, Maceo had been killed, but the war proved to be brief and one-sided. On February 28th, 1901, US Senator Orville H. Platt proposed an amendment to the Army Appropriations Act which once approved by his country, had to be annexed to the Cuban Constitution that would rule the new Republic. The first Spanish settlement on Cuba was Baracoa which was founded by Diego Velazquez de Cuellar in 1511. On February 4, 1959, Fidel Castro announced a massive reform plan which included a public works project, land reform granting nearly 200,000 families farmland, and also nationalization plans of various industries. The so called US democracy showed its true essence. Coercive measures were used, irregularities were carried out on the polling stations and those that participated in independence actions against Spain were refused. Spain had domestic problems of its own that hindered its war efforts in the final years of the conflict after the eruption of Spain’s Third Carlist War in 1872. It rang out to announce that the struggle had begun. US lies to Security Council about Cuba and Venezuela, An Open Letter to the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Cuba, European Parliament spews anti-Cuba propaganda, U.S. Treasury Issues Changes to Strengthen Cuba Sanctions Rules. This day is devoted to the Christ child and Elegua, the foremost deity in Santería. That is why, for that wolf pack, May 20th will continue being a “patriotic day” used to revive their rage and howled hysteria against Cuba. The articles on Voltaire Network may be freely reproduced provided the source is cited, their integrity is respected and they are not used for commercial purposes (license CC BY-NC-ND). The Platt Amendment was the price the Cuban rebels paid to get a withdrawal of U.S. troops. In Cuba, Spanish forces put down several major rebellions, including one which lasted from 1868 to 1878. Similar elections were held in June of 1901. Only one candidate was left for the elections: Tomas Estrada Palma, who had succeeded Jose Marti as Delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party and who had to resign to his 26 year old US citizenship. The first injustice and offense to the dignity of the Cuban people was its exclusion OCTOBER . News. CUBA'S INDEPENDENCE DAY IS STILL A DREAM On May 20, 1902, after a brief period of US occupation in accordance with the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898 between Spain and the US at the end of the Spanish-American War, Cuba officially received its independence. A prime example are May 20th celebrations commemorating the National Day of Independence, when Cuba declared itself a republic in 1902 after the Spanish-Cuban-North American war of 1898, commonly referred to in the U.S. as the Spanish-American War. Names were changed which later nulled their rights to 29 March Antonio Maceo returned from exile to Cuba to support the revolution. 20 May 2021 Cuba Thu, May 20, 2021 Add to calendar. ... President Bush met with Cuban political dissidents on the 89th anniversary of the independence of Cuba to discuss the political and social state of Cuba. Also known as Fiestas Patrias and El Dieciocho. Is Independence Day a Public Holiday? 10 October is a public holiday but there are no major events. Spain could help companies that switch to four-day working week. Getty Images South America/Getty Images News/Getty Images. That is why the Platt Amendment was born. Grito de Lares. Christmas, “Natividad” A majority of Cuban citizens are Catholic. That day, the bell of La Demajagua sugar mill didn’t call the workers to the fields. On December 10th, 1898, with the Paris Treaty Spanish colonialism in Cuba has officially ended. By 1825, most of Spain's colonies in the new world had achieved their independence, and only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained. Another major attempt at independence took place in 1895 when ragtag forces including Cuban poet and patriot José Martí were defeated at the Battle of Dos Ríos. Cuba - Cuba - Filibustering and the struggle for independence: The demands of sugar—labourers, capital, machines, technical skills, and markets—strained ethnic relations, aggravated political and economic differences between metropolis and colony, and laid the foundation for the break with Spain in 1898. When Is Independence Day 2021? Cuba definition: 1. island in the West Indies, south of Fla. 2. country comprising this island & several small nearby islands: gained independence from Spain in 1898: 42,803 sq mi (110,860 sq km); cap. Thus, younger generations celebrate the 1959 revolution instead of the country's day of independence. The Hispanic-Cuban-American war was described by Vladimir Lenin as the first imperialist war in the history of humanity. José Martí was a Cuban poet and an intellectual during the late 19th century, and is considered the father of Cuban revolution. The list of electors was hidden from voters in order for these not to verify if their names were among them. Cuban independence war bas relief urban art in the Jose Marti plaza square. From this amendment the US Naval Base in Guantanamo was born and still remains against the will of the Cuban people and is currently used as an international torture and crime center by the government of the United States despite reiterated denunciations made at the highest international institutions. As Cuba became more settled by the Spanish they developed industries of sugarcane, tobacco, and cattle. Many Cubans did not wish to be under Spanish rule, so they fled to Florida and other parts of the United States. With the abolition of slavery in October 1886, freedmen joined the ranks of farmers and the urban working class. In 1898 the United States became involved in the war when one of its battleships, the USS Maine, was sunk. Many of these have not been celebrated in Cuba since 1959. As early as 1790 the idea of independence was popular in Cuba, one the Spanish colonies, in some groups. This day is devoted to the Christ child and Elegua, the foremost deity in Santería. 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